Sunday, February 3, 2019

2019 - Looking Forward

2019 - Looking Forward

The View from the Garden and Plans for the Breeding Season

2019 will be the ninth year of my program and the eighth year of breeding in my own garden. 

As I mentioned in my post on the 2018 season, the majority of the gardens here had major reworking last year, so the gardens will not be at their peak this year. Only the seedling beds will be a source of continual excitement. For anyone hoping to see a good display, 2019 probably isn't going to be the best year to visit. For those who are interested in the selection process I use, it might be an informative year, but all of my best, older seedlings have been split up for line out and further testing. In my experience first year line outs of a fan or two do not give much of a show, but it is important to me to make observations of this stage, as some few do much better after division than most, with most being average, and a few then showing very poor performance in their first year after line out (possibly being eliminated, if it is bad enough). 

My personal gardens don't include any real display gardens. When the hybridizing garden and line out beds are fully grown, they can be quite spectacular, but aren't really laid out to be public spaces. They are laid out to be convenient to work in. I expect things to begin to be partially regrown in 2020, with the garden again at peak growth by 2021. The reorganization I have made to the line out bed, and that I will continue to work on over the next couple of years, should lead to a much nicer space for viewing my plants. If I were prone to betting, I would bet on 2021 being the right year to visit to see the gardens looking full and nice again. 

Korean Queen, above and below, in 2015 as a mature seedling clump. It was moved from this seedling bed into my hybridizing garden in the fall of 2015 for further testing. Shot above is in the late afternoon, while the one below is earlier in the day in cloudy conditions. Note the effect of late freeze damage on the leaf tips on that clump. 2015 saw severe last spring freezes, and was then followed by six weeks of intense heat and drought and I don't water the seedling bed. so this is quite good performance for any cultivar that shows some susceptibility to late freeze damage.

The summer of 2015 saw my 2011-bred seedlings in full maturity and so a lot of selection happened then. That was my first foray into dealing with a large number of select seedlings. I did not feel I was at the point to line out most of these seedlings, nor did I have the space to do so on that level at that time either. I moved them as whole clumps into the hybridizing garden for further observation, so even though they were full clumps, taking them up and moving them set them back in 2016. Anyone who saw my hybridizing garden in the extreme heat, a 6-week drought followed by a 6-week monsoon and deer damage of 2016 must have thought a lot of clumps of daylilies looked particularly bedraggled! :-)

Korean Queen in 2016, the first season of flowering after being moved in the fall of 2015 as a full clump. If you increase the size of the picture, you can see that branching and bud counts are reduced in this picture, as compared to the picture above from the previous season before the seedling had been moved. 

While the flowering of a full clump diminishes some when disturbed and moved, a heavy division is even more of a set-back. When a clump is divided down into smaller divisions, and especially when taken down to single fans, in most instances, there will be a range of reduced performance in the first year divisions. This can include whether the plant flowers or not at all, how the flowers look, the height of the scape, the number of buds and the number of branches. Some plants suffer from division much more than others and take longer to recover. Some few recover quickly and vigorously.

Korean Queen shows excellent recovery after division. Divided in the fall of 2017, here it is in the 2018 season blooming well and normally, though branching, bud count and scape height are less than in a mature clump. This is still remarkable recovery and performance.

In my work, one focus has been on those plants that bloom within the first year after division with a reasonably sized double fan division or a large (for the cultivar) single fan. However, such a division flowering doesn't mean that it will bloom normally (or beautifully), at the registered height or branching/bud count that first year. In my evaluation I am not looking for the impossible, just more vigorous constitution. I may give allowance to a plant that takes two years to flower again if there are other exceptional traits, but I try not to do this too often. It is standard practice in commercial daylily growing to take clumps down to single fans to increase them. Some may only go to double fans. While I like to send a larger division if I can, it is important for me to know that my plants can go down to single or double fan divisions without significant damage. Fast recovery is important also, and exceptional flower performance in the first year, consistently, on divisions is an extremely desirable trait in the realm of 'plant traits'.

What will be very exciting to me this year though is the breedings I am preparing to do. Truly, a new day is dawning in my program, where I am no longer in the testing phase to figure out what is a good breeder, but using those that have proven to be good performers and breeders over the years they have been here. Many plants in this category have seven years up to a decade or more of provenance here in my garden. A great many of these are my own seedlings. Amongst my own seedlings, except for a tiny few from before my official program beginning year of 2010, the oldest will be 8 years old in August of 2019. The seven and eight year old seedlings went through the entire five year rust resistance screening program. I will now begin to make my own select seedlings central to all efforts, with the original base plants and secondary/tertiary level cultivars from other hybridizers becoming accent plants to return to for backcrossing.

Above, flower of select seedling from 2011 breeding season flowering in hybridizing garden, below, the plant of the same seedling.

Another thing that is exciting, and that I greatly anticipate, is seeing the first flush of flowers on seedlings bred in 2017. They won't all bloom, but enough will to give some significant ideas on how those matings combined. The first half of the 2017 breeding season was completely given over to Solaris Symmetry pollen, with about 95%+ of matings at the tet level using this single pollen parent. 2017 was the last year for experimenting with a base plant at a large scale. I haven't devoted a huge amount of use to Solaris Symmetry pollen since 2012, focusing on Solaris Symmetry as a pod parent and observing its grandkids. By 2017, with the rust resistance testing phase passed and Solaris Symmetry having proven time and again to be an excellent plant and parent, I decided it was time to make one final season/garden-wide long cross. This included backcrossing Solaris Symmetry to all the select seedlings I have raised from it in the past. So I will see a whole range of types of crosses, from wide outcrosses to type breeding (flowers similar to Solaris Symmetry) to backcrosses to offspring to the large number of seedlings I have from selfing Solaris Symmetry that year (yes, its pollen was used so extensively, I even used it on itself!). This will be the largest single data collection I have done on Solaris Symmetry, and the first I have done with it as a major pollen parent. I am just jittery to see what range of variations it makes!

Solaris Symmetry at sunset 2018

The seedlings from the second half of the 2017 breeding season will be equally exciting, as I focused on only a handful of pollen parents, with an emphasis on flat form. I was able to use my own late flowering seedlings that summer and there will be a wide range of interesting seedlings in the late category.

Wookie Goddess

A major breeding strategy will involve using the pollen of my select seedlings (especially the most longterm tested ones) that were broken up for line out testing last fall. While these will not give a good show, all the ones that bloom will likely give good pollen, and the ones that perform the best next year in this final major test will become the main pollens used in 2019. Most of my seedlings from this part of the program show good pod fertility and I have used those seedlings predominantly as pod parents, so this year, with none of those plantings full established, their pollen will become the focus for pollinations in 2019, and they will be allowed to rest as pod parents. I will be able to move the pollen of the select seedlings over select cultivars from other hybridizers, some of the base plants in my program and my own seedlings that have not been moved and can reliably have seeds set on them. 

Hybridizing garden 2018. All of the tall yellow seedlings in the background of this picture were lined out last fall. I did leave a triple fan division in place of each seedling, but they will take time to recover and look impressive again. 

I think of creating a breeding program much like braiding strands or cooking. In braiding, you take separate strands and turn them into one stronger strand by looping them through each other. A fitting description of breeding strategies. In cooking, you are mixing different ingredients - stirring, steeping, concentrating, folding-in and mixing - until you get something that is no longer the ingredients, but has become a thing of its own, with its own unique flavors and essence. I would say that I am finally at the point where I am no longer adding lots of ingredients (though we may "season to flavor" later on by adding something special from other programs), and am now beginning to see the ingredients take shape and prepare to bake. Over the next five or six years, the recipe will be baking.

Bed of four and five year seedlings in 2018

Beyond the breeding season, as we move into late summer and early fall, there should be another round of digging, dividing and lining-out seedlings for further testing. I think that I have done enough work in the gardens (shifting things around, donating superior but excess plants, culling inferior plantings and building new infrastructure) over the last five years, and especially the last two years, to have created a new trajectory and a new system of work and focus. This will be the first year I will working with the new garden layout and I am excited to see how it is going to run. 

I hope you all have a wonderful 2019!

Friday, January 25, 2019

2018 - Looking Back

2018 - Looking Back

The Year in Review

With all my planned work for late 2018 and early 2019 finished, I can now take some time to reflect on the year that has just passed. 

An odd year with tremendous rain, the first thing that stands out in my memory is the advancements in flower phenotype I saw in the seedlings from the last three years of my rust resistance screening program. I have now seen each year that was screened in flower, including both F1 outcrosses and second generation seedlings from some of the oldest, five-year screened F1 seedlings, and I feel like I have an excellent, diverse base to select first level and secondary base plants. Some seedlings will undoubtedly be used in breeding, but only become tertiary, perhaps not even making the cut to stay in my program, with only some of their genes remaining in descendants. The process of selecting truly superior plants, both in terms of performance and breeding value, is to spend some time with them, observing through multiple years, and making selections over time based upon longterm performance, both in the garden and in the seedling bed. But I digress...

The winter of early 2018 was warm and rainy and then cold and rainy/snowy/frozen repeatedly, with the obligatory warm spells sprinkled in between. The cold lasted well into April here, and so all faster-growing daylilies (which emerge from winter rest after five seconds of warmish weather), and any plants that had the temerity to come out early, were repeatedly blasted. We lost many plants of many genera that appear to have simply rotted in the ground. I have never seen peony take such a hit! Both types were effected, with the herbaceous taking the most damage, but the woody types also sustained substantial damage, which I have never seen before. Tree peony usually show high frost tolerance here. I also lost more daylilies in the winter of 2018 than I have ever lost in winter before, however, that was only about 32 cultivars and no seedlings. While the cultivars that died did show some consistent features such as foliage behavior or frost susceptibility, the other points were rather random, covering plants that had been in the garden for over a decade through established plants to plants that had been here for only a year or two. There was not a significant loss of one or two year plants though, so it wasn't just new plants being lost. For instance, the remaining clumps of Nivia Guest, which I have been growing here since in mid-1990s, were decimated last spring. While the winters for the last four or five years have been gradually wearing it away, I don't think we have any of it left now.

However, that harsh, killing winter and spring were not just something to mourn! They also offered the opportunity to observe what survived, how well those survived and what their performance was. As one would expect, there were a lot of problems in the early/early group. The late freezes and cool, rainy late spring made the display poor on many early/early cultivars. However, as usual, Whooperee and Spider Man looked good. Solaris Symmetry gave its usual good performance. I was further able to observe the seedlings that I have been selecting for good performance in the early/early flowering season. I was very happy to see that the majority of the seedlings that have had three or more years of selection for good early/early performance continued to give excellent performance. Amongst those, the most note-worth is a seedling that has consistently been my earliest flowering tetraploid, always showing great performance here in this difficult season in my garden. It is a 2019 introduction - Eos At Dawn - and was germinated here in August 2011.

The 2018 spring shipping season was good for me, though I overdid myself several times. I was very happy to distribute some of my own introductions to several daylily breeders. I look forward to seeing how they use them in breeding, and hearing how they have done! My flower season begins about the time I finish shipping, with just a couple of weeks in between. Those are always busy with weeding! With all the rain, weeding was a major theme all year!

Solaris Symmetry 2018

The season itself was rainy and hot, much like a tropical rainforest.  Weed growth (as well as plant growth) was extreme. I had very good flowering on most things from the early season on. Early/early (as always) was the most damaged, with any sign of damage from the difficult spring showing less and less as each part of the season unfolded. I had to be very careful all summer, as my pinched nerve was in overdrive and everything I did irritated it and threatened 'an episode'. While most of my summer was spent battling a verdant display of weeds, I also took time to do a few pollinations that I thought were important. I did everything I could to take care of myself and not precipitate a physical injury and didn't end up with a full episode of pinched nerve, so that was great, and the breedings I accomplished this summer, I think, were very important for the future of my program. Even though the year was productive, it was painful, my shoulder was frozen and every time I bent over T4 threatened to pop out of place. For whatever reason, typing caused me tremendous pain in my shoulders all summer and so unanswered emails have stacked up and multiple planned blog posts didn't get written. In spite of all that, it was a lovely year!

2018 Garden Images
(More text below the pictures)

I love the combination of the bright, hot, magenta coneflowers and the cool, pale yellow daylilies in this shot.

The cool blue-gray of the fescue grass combined with the hot coneflowers and neutral green of Sun-hosta makes a nice effect here. A rock garden border leading into a wildflower border, leading to a daylily bed.

Soft, lavender-pink coneflowers serve as a backdrop to daylily 'Orange Velvet'. 'Orange Velvet' usually blooms on taller scapes in this particular location.  Short scapes in my gardens seem to correlate with instances of late spring freezes. This one grows in a very open location and many things around it suffered from late spring freezes in 2018.

Tall, well-branched daylily seedlings in a border planting including Asclepias, Crocosmia, Echinacea and Solidago. These are select seedlings from my breeding program that are being tested for landscape applications in mixed perennial borders. The branching and bud count of the peach-orange seedling (center) is quite nice. 

Seedling Bed - 2018

Hybridizing Garden - 2018

During the spring it became obvious to me that I had to make a big shift in plantings in 2018. That was one reason I was disappointed that I couldn't do much in the summer, but I was able to make two donations of older cultivars, which freed up a great deal of space to rearrange many of my plants, especially in my line out bed. I was so grateful to the people from both clubs who came and dug the plants! You all did me a huge service there, and I hope the plants benefit the clubs!

Seedling Bed

By August I felt like I could dig again and I began moving things, digging plants to ship and digging seedlings for line out. It became clear to me through the season that some major changes had to happen in the large mixed flower gardens. I had begun removing old plantings that have been in place for a long time, many having proven to be lesser performers over the longterm. I started that work the previous summer (2017) and completed it (for the most part) this fall (2018). 

In the spaces where these plants were removed, select seedlings and my own introductions have gone back in their place. This is further testing, starting by putting in single, double or triple fans (depending on what was available) and seeing how they perform, in the process allowing them to become established display clumps. Three different major display beds have received this treatment. These daylily plantings will not really look great again until 2020 to 2021, but with a mixed flower garden, there will still be some flowers of other genera of plants, as well as the few established daylily clumps that were retained. Things planted last year will start to give a show this year, being full mature in 2020, while those planted in fall 2018 should be at peak by 2021.

One of the mixed flower beds that was overhauled in 2018. The addition of chainlink fencing has kept the deer out, and gave us the feeling of security to go ahead with this big garden overhaul.

Another large section of the garden was being grown as a perennial bed in the style of a prairie or field, but using plantings of native and garden perennials mixed together. In recent years, it has become hard to manage. A tiny piece of Houttuynia cordata 'Chameleon' made its way into this bed and is threatening to take the entire larger garden, while I made the mistake of leaving some native, volunteer Clematis virginiana in the bed (because it is lovely!) that had become gigantic and spread by seeds aggressively in the bed. A long border has been worked in behind this over the last three years and is now mature. So I have mowed off the part of the 'wildflower' bed where the Houttuynia and the Clematis are growing. 

A section of mixed border bed

This allowed me to reshape the entire layout of the large garden this wildflower bed is part of. I have removed some of the desirable plants from this bed last fall and have more to do in the spring. I also added a large number of new daylily plantings and will be adding more in the next year or two to bulk up certain of the background areas. Because I now want to accentuate the mowed area (which will be worked back into grass) between the two main sections of this garden, while letting the long, narrow border bed become the main backdrop, I will want to make some slight changes in where clumps of tall daylilies are worked into the back line of the front bed. I expect the back border bed (which due to its shape is very easy to weed) will give a good show, as much of it is mature. New daylily plantings added to the wider, eastern end of this border won't give a full show next year, and won't be fully mature until 2021, but gardens seem to be constantly evolving things, in my experience.

I would like to report that for the first year in several years, we have no deer damage in this garden. Tall chainlink fencing seems to do the trick! Notify Ground Crew here with 6' fencing. While deer can jump a 6' fence, the addition of rows of barbed wire at the top, slanting outward, makes the fence secure from deer, as they don't have good depth perception and won't attempt to jump because of the combined height and top strands of barbed wire.

With all the new room that I had opened up this year, I lined out over 100 seedlings from 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 for final testing. I culled out some things from the hybridizing garden, though less than usual. Many of the lined out seedlings also came from the hybridizing garden. I then replaced those seedlings in the hybridizing garden with new select seedlings from the seedling beds, allowing another cycle to start. There won't be much to see in the hybridizing garden this year, as so many things there are new plantings, with only about fifty older, established clumps of select cultivars from other hybridizers to give a good show. It will be a great year for evaluating division recovery, though!

Seedling bed

Even though I removed 100+ seedlings from the seedling bed last year to move to other locations for further testing, the seedling beds will still be quite full, and will probably be the only beds here where things will look full and mature. Most of the plants removed from the seedling beds went into the hybridizing garden, line out garden or one of the mixed flower gardens. All of those gardens were in one way or another overhauled and so the majority of daylily plantings are new and won't give a great show for a couple of years, but in the end, the show will be better, the weeds easier to control and I can continue testing my plants to select for excellent performers.

Hybridizing Garden

In November, after all the planting was finished, I had a chainlink fence added around my line out bed to make a more secure final testing field that is well-protected from deer. Most of the plants I donated to daylily clubs in 2018 came out of the line out bed and I  managed to refill all open slots, but there is still lots of room to expand over the next few years into this bed as new line outs are ready. I am in no rush to fill it up! Space, I am finding, is the most value thing possible in any breeding project!

New chainlink deer fence around line out bed.

Once the fencing was done, I then moved on to making 150 slides for a future presentation, preparing the new introductions for 2019 and updating my website. 2018 was gone, and it seemed like it had gone very quickly once I finished up all my work and gave it a moments thought. On to 2019, with high hopes for new seedlings and new breeding schemes! Best wishes for you and your garden in 2019! :-)

Friday, January 4, 2019

2019 Daylily Introductions Released!

2019 Daylily Introductions Released!

Announcing the release of 
13 new introductions for 2019, 
including 7 tetraploid introductions.

Scroll Down for a picture and the name of each new introduction and the link to its information page. 

Click the name with each picture below to go to the information page for that new introduction.

Read my new blog post - Rust Resistance: A Few Words

Read my new blog post - Rust Resistance: A Few Words

Korean Queen

Korean Queen
(Sdlg#  HFKQC3)

2019 - Reeder - Tetraploid - 
Hemerocallis fulva ex Korea, Seoul National University, NA 54920 x Queen’s Circle - 
32” scape - 4.5” flower - 4 branches - 15 buds - Midseason - Semi-evergreen

Bright, dark orange in morning fading to reverse bicolor of lighter, bright orange with lavender overlay on petals with darker orange band and sepals with a double edge of dark orange and a gold wire outer edge on the petals above a bright golden-yellow throat.

For a complete list of available daylilies and pricing, click here.

I love this little plant so much! It has far surpassed my idea of what such a cross could produce. The pod parent is the amazing Hemerocallis fulva 'Korean', imported to the US in 1984 by Darrel Apps and Barry Yinger. The pollen parent is the beautiful, but tender Queen's Circle which descends from the lovely Awesome Blossom and the tetraploid conversion of the wonderful Lavender Blue Baby. The pod parent is extremely rust resistant, and while the pollen parent wasn't, it does descend from LBB (which carries rust resistance genes, in my experience) and Awesome Blossom (which shows moderate rust resistance). The cross of HfK and QC really turned up the rust resistance, and this plant rated extremely resistant (A+) throughout all five years of my rust resistance screening program. That in-and-of itself would have made this one a useful breeder, but when it first flowered, I was really amazed to get a flower that looked so modern with ruffles, occasional small teeth, a light edge, a darker eye/edge and a lavender overlay. However, the greatest surprise only dawned on me as I watched this lovely flower over the years - it is a color-changer! It begins the day like the picture directly above, a dark orange with a slightly darker eye/edge and a lighter outer edge, but as the day progresses, the color in the center of the petal begins to fade. The picture directly below shows the flower midday, with the petal center just beginning to fade.

In the below picture, at about 5 pm in the afternoon, you can see the fading strongly, allowing the lighter orange base color to show through and the lavender overlay to begin to be visible, especially on the midrib.

The picture below shows the flower by 7-8 pm, with the fading completed and the amazing color combination it takes on showing strongly. The petal has faded out all the way to the outer dark edge, allowing the eye/edge to become very prominent and the lavender tones to really show strongly on the midrib and the petal edges just inside the darker edge. If you notice, it almost creates a third, lighter edge with the midrib lavender, the inner petal light orange, then the lavender layer on the petals, followed by the dark orange edge and finally the pale wire outer edge, all shot through with the lovely dark orange veins. The effect is very fancy, very unique and very pretty. The color-changing trait isn't just a fluke either, and this one has given me tetraploid color-changing seedlings already. I think Korean Queen will be a big boon to breeders on many levels, not least of which for this who want to work with hardy and genetically diverse color-changers at the tetraploid level.

I have registered this one as a tetraploid. I tried it repeatedly with diploids and never got one seed, and really did try it a lot over several years, as I was extremely excited at the thought of taking this plant's genetics into my diploid work. With its descent from tet. Lavender Blue Baby, I very much wanted to take it into my own Lavender Feathers (from Texas Feathered Fancy (which is from LBB) and LBB itself) family line, as I have occasionally seen extra tissue that is cristate-like on Korean Queen. However, that never panned out, as I never got one seed either direction. This and multiple other attempts with diploids strongly suggests to me that Korean Queen is a tetraploid.

Korean Queen is not just a nice flower though. It is also a very nice plant. In addition to the very high rust resistance, the plant is also attractive, making a very nice looking clump in the garden. The foliage is a medium green color and can have some spotting from late spring freezes. It shows much higher tolerance to late spring freezes than its half siblings (LMOPink and KMOPurple), but it can still get some slight damage. The scapes are nice, held above the foliage and with four branches on mature clumps. I have registered it as a semi-evergreen. I have sent it to a few southern gardens for testing, and they all confirm that (much as its pod parent and many fulva clones) it behaves as a semi-evergreen in warm-winter gardens. In my garden, it performs as a dormant, and is really close to the so-called "hard dormant". However, I chose to register it as a SEV because it does well in the south, where it is SEV and I want to get it into the warm-winter, evergreen programs where its tremendous genetic diversity, rust resistance and breeding value for rust resistance and color-changing trait can be put to good use. Korean Queen has been very hardy here in my zone 6 garden, and is currently growing in two gardens in zone 5 where it also has survived and thrived. I think this one will do well in much of the US. I have never seen it show any loss of fans or crown damage from even the harshest winters in my garden, and it increases well without fading away in warm-winter gardens. I think this one can be very valuable in many breeding programs.

In addition to all the good traits I have written about above, Korean Queen is an excellent breeder, not just for rust resistance, but also for the flower! The slide below is from my 2018 Monday Night Lights presentation in Facebook and shows some of the excellent (and amazingly well-colored) seedlings I have produced from Korean Queen. The seedlings pictured below are flowers from the 2017 flower season. I saw many more in 2018 and was completely blown away by the variation and wonderful flower traits I saw! There is a large section in my 2019 MNL presentation that will cover seedlings from Korean Queen and I hope you will take the time to see that presentation  in February or March 2019, if you are on Facebook. (Click the slide below to see a larger version)

I think Korean Queen has so much potential as a breeder, in both southern and northern programs, as well as in a variety of programs for a range of different colors and styles. While Korean Queen has a yellow throat (which I think is perfect with the rest of its colors) you can see that it can produce green throats in its seedlings.

More pictures and information about Korean Queen below.

Another shot of the whole plant. I included this picture to show the plant in a year after a series of severe late spring freezes followed by an eight-week drought. You can see some of the leaves have had the tips frozen off when they were emerging and that then creates some browned tips and brown spots. Even at that, I have seen far worse foliage on other plants, and it still looks good in the landscape. The plant shows a good scape to fan ratio and the flowers make an attractive display, often with the bouquet effect you see above even in the very dry season (and I didn't water it) in this picture. You can see here that the plant forms a clump. As with its half-siblings through HfK, this one will show slight runners that emerge from the main clump once it is established. I have been growing it in containers now for a couple of years and it flourishes, so if you are worried about it potentially spreading, that is one way to use it and contain it.

An attractive shot showing the nice flower and the well-formed buds. You can see that there is not much thrip damage in terms of enations on the buds. It shows moderately high thrip resistance, and is far more thrip resistant than both parents. While I registered it with 15 buds, an established clump can show upwards of 20+.

This picture shows a very unusual day where every flower open was much more purple than normal. It still went through the color change routine, though as the color faded, the flowers were left with dark spots scattered over the petals. Interesting! No wonder it breeds good purple and lavender!

The pictures above and the below show the flower and the plant in 2018 after it was divided and lined-out in 2017. It takes division very well and thrives, increasing quickly. You can see the fading effect in the flower above, which was photographed near sunset. The picture below shows the plant in the afternoon, about 4 PM when the fading is in mid-phase. Look at the interesting effect that creates, and it makes the flower really glow, standout and create an eye-catching effect in the landscape! You can also see some damaged leaf ends from our late spring freezes. I am happy to say that by crossing Korean Queen with more freeze-tolerant plants, I have produced many seedlings from it that show much better freeze tolerance.