Monday, March 13, 2017

Growing Daylilies 3

Growing Daylilies 3 - Care and Feeding of Your Flowering Friends

New post added to the Growing Daylilies series.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Growing Daylilies 2

New Post Added

Growing Daylilies Part 2 - Using color in the landscape has been added to the Growing Daylilies page. Click the link here or go to Growing Daylilies to read the new article.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

2017 Blog Update

Announcing a major facelift to this blog for 2017...

I have created a series of new stand-alone pages, all linked in the menu bar at the top of the page.

These new pages each list a series of blog posts by topic. Utilize them to navigate the site and to keep up with new posts in any subject that is of particular interest to you.

The new page topics are...

Posts pertaining to how I grow, field test, breed and select daylilies.

Posts concerning selection of and breeding for rust resistance.

A series of posts looking at the life history of the Hemerocallis.

A series of posts looking at the influences on my aesthetic view of daylily phenotypes.

Pages pertaining to my own breeding results.

For beginners and gardeners alike.
A focus on basic ideas and guidelines for getting the most out of growing daylilies.

A listing of cultivars with descriptions of my anecdotal experiences of growing and breeding from each. This list will expand over time.

Monday, January 9, 2017

2016 In Review - Looking Back at My Program

2016 In Review 
Looking Back at My Program

This post picks up where my last one (2016 Thanks and Gratitude) left off. In that post I stressed that I can only encourage all the many directions being taken in the daylily world in terms of breeding. I also pointed out that my blog is simply a chronicle of my personal direction and not to be taken as a dictate on what your program should be. I wanted to take this blog post to explain how I view my program and its progress up to this time.
At the beginning of my breeding work with Hemerocallis in 2010, I already had been growing daylilies for over thirty years and breeding animals for nearly that long as well. So I had the experience of growing many daylilies, as well as the knowledge of how all my previous breeding projects had unfolded. One thing I knew going in was that no matter what ‘look’ or phenotypes I was most attracted to, no matter what I might arbitrarily choose to focus on based on looking at flowers or flower pictures in catalogs and online, the actual act of growing and testing the plants would inevitably steer me in directions I couldn’t have foreseen. This always happens for me in any program. Why? Because I don’t just value visual traits. I also value performance traits, and the thing I most value is a good balance of the two trait sets.

I knew going in that I would need a minimum of a five year period to determine what plants had the plant performance traits, as well as breeding value for those traits, that I would desire to perpetuate within a breeding program. I knew that to make those determinations, I would need to test many plant (cultivars and species clones) until I found the handful that expressed those intangible traits I value, breeding value for those traits AND have the ability to produce and reproduce attractive flowers. 

In the series of blog posts I made during the summer of 2016 about ‘The Daylily as Art’, I discussed all my favorite phenotype traits. To be honest, my very favorite flowers are those extremely overdone southern beauties with eyes, triple edges, teeth and patterns, and preferably in some shade of lavender or purple. However, I don’t think that just those are of value or interesting to work with, and I appreciate many ‘less-fancy’ looks. One thing that has been remarkably consistent across all plants and animals that I have worked with is that the most fancy are also often the most inbred, the most difficult to keep and work with, the most difficult to breed from and will almost universally show deleterious traits that have been ignored in the pursuit of the amazing visual combinations seen in such highly selected lines. With that in mind, I knew that what I thought the most visually stunning likely would not be the place to start a breeding program, but rather is an ideal to strive toward, patiently and with care.
And that is just the point. From 2010 to now, I have been establishing a program. Now stop and think about that for a moment. ‘Establishing a program’. What does that mean? Well, it means that I am not looking for the flashiest or most popular, but rather those plants which display and have breeding value for exceptional plant traits as well as nice flowers. If that is combined, in some rare instances, with advanced flower traits, that is a plus, but I knew going in that it wouldn’t be common to find the most advanced flower traits with the most extreme expression of  valuable plant traits.

So what to do? Well, I understand breeding and genetics. What you see isn’t always what you get. Traits can be manipulated, transferred into other genetic backgrounds, improved or salvaged - moving them from a lesser genetic background into a superior one. However, such work can’t be done without having a working knowledge of the performance and breeding value of a few lines, in order to have material for salvage work and the transfer of desirable flower traits onto plants with desirable plant traits.

I also know that in the pursuit of ever greater extremes of flower traits, very few breeders will take the time to go back to the drawing board, starting from scratch to improve a popular trait that is found on a difficult line. So it was almost inevitable that some of the most desirable traits won’t be found on the most robust and desirable plants. That is to be expected, is regular in any hobby breeding (whether plants or animals) and is just a datum to add to any calculations when starting out. It is not an indictment of anyone or their program. 
And that is the point - starting out. Starting out, I was seeking to take the time to grow a large number of cultivars and clones in conditions to reveal their strengths and weakness, to find the specific lines/plants that had the traits (and breeding value for those traits) I want (both plant traits and flower traits) and use that knowledge and experience to establish a breeding base to create a program that can be used in two ways. The first is to simply interbreed within those plants and their seedlings to intensify those desirable traits (whether plant traits, flower traits or both) and the second is to use the best of those lines as outcross/salvage bases for integrating new flower traits from other programs where those plants may have shortcomings in terms of plant trait qualities.

Let me reiterate this point. Everything you have read on my blog to date, everything that I have done up to this point, is in the pursuit of finding the materials to create a breeding base, to create a breeding program. I placed no particular restraints on where to look for such material, so I have grown everything from species clones to old cultivars, all ploidy levels and many conversions, as well as many of the newest and most advanced. In selecting the material to build a breeding base from, I have simply cast my net wide and patiently waited to see what crossed the many hurdles I have set up as a tool of selection for base stock.

Now, as we are into 2017, and I have completed my sixth year of daylily breeding, I have found that base of plants to move forward with in the pursuit of developing my own program. I have tested over 1100 cultivars and clones, and while I could continue this process almost indefinitely, I have more than enough material to work from (in fact, more than I could ever properly work with and explore). So it is time to take the best of those that I have worked with and their best seedlings and move forward. I am now into the third generation with many of my original crosses that proved themselves worthy of continuation, and I have also found a fair number of other good (and a few truly exceptional) plants to begin to integrate into the bases I have already established or to cross onto those cultivars/clones that have shown themselves repeatedly useful over the past six years.
So now at the beginning of the 7th year, I am actually just beginning to start my own breeding program. For a time, this means I won’t be bringing in new plants. Rather I will just be working with the best of what I have, which is probably a job far more vast than I can ever really deal with fully, or explore all the possible avenues available to me through those plants. That doesn’t mean, however, that I won’t ever be bringing new plants in. I most certainly will and I am always looking at the new introductions of other breeders. Eventually, something will be irresistible, but for now, I will take the next phase of my program to establish a reliable base from which future new accessions can be reliably integrated into my program.

To me, this is a reasonable and expected progression, and while I couldn’t have told you at the start what cultivars would make the cut, I could easily predict the movement through time of how my program would unfold, the stages I would move through and the relative time it would take to reach each point. The overall projection of my breeding program extends out to twenty years, with four points at five years each. The first phase actually took six years. I am now entering the second phase and I can project that phase to extend out for four, five or six years. 

The first phase (phase 1) was about identifying breeding materials from which lines could be developed that would suit my taste in both plant traits and flower traits. This phase was an open phase, in the sense that new plants came in every year, usually spring and fall, and all materials were tested to identify target traits, and used in breeding to test for breeding value of any traits of interest. 

The second phase (phase 2) is about establishing a base of breeding that intensifies desired traits, both plant and flower traits, and combines desired traits into lines, producing lines rich in desired traits, always looking for advances, where any trait, flower or plant, is taken to a new level. This is a closed phase, as no new material will be brought in through the period of this phase. That allows total focus on the selected plants already here, and allows focused exploration on the many possibilities for both plant and flower selection that those selected lines offer. My expectation is that through this phase, further concentration will occur, with some lines falling by the wayside while other lines become central to future efforts.
This second phase is very exciting to me, as for the first time I will be able to make crosses that are basically just about the flower, because I am making those crosses on previously tested base lines that have proven to have desired traits and breeding value for those traits. Up to this point, I have been making crosses with many considerations in mind - the desire to test for multiple traits. Now, I have the experience and information to begin to make crosses with the flower as the main focus, because I know what plant traits I can expect from the plants I grow and have been test mating for breeding value. So now, I begin to move more into the realm of art, as I am standing on a base of experience and knowledge that has been hard-won through years of testing. 

I will continue to apply many of the tests that I have previously used to my seedlings to continue to identify, concentrate and enhance the best genes for plant trait qualities. That is a given, though I will modify the focus of some of those traits and will be working with smaller numbers of seedlings in general. This second phase is about concentrating desirable genes of all kinds - the plant traits and the flower traits. The key to doing this is the result of the first phase - testing for expression of desirable traits and finding those that also have breeding value for those traits. Without the first phase, the second phase would be much more haphazard. I consider my approach to be conservative, patient, grounded in experience and rounded out through a consideration for plant breeding science as well as a love of art.

So what is the point of this second phase? It is to concentrate the best traits I have found through the testing phase. It is a process of focusing. A narrowing and winnowing that allows all my energy to go into lines that have already shown results. It seeks to apply all energy to achieving results, rather than seeking data. The first phase was an information gathering exercise. The second phase is about putting that information into action. 
Other programs may assume different forms, follow different timelines and use other methods. Those are equally valid and each person has to determine what they will do in their own program, and I can only encourage you to think about what you want and how to achieve that, and then follow it. Follow your bliss and your dreams. The daylily world needs every program and every focus.

If you are new to breeding, consider what you really want to achieve. There are two basic divisions - a well rounded program that considers many traits and a program that is singularly focused on one or two traits. These two directions should not be at odds, at war with each other, but recognize that they balance each other and that each can benefit greatly from the other. 

As a final note, I often hear an argument among tetraploid breeders as to whether conversions are a good thing or not. One group says there is already enough tetraploid genetic material and that new conversions are not necessary and may even be detrimental when poor plants are converted and then used liberally by many breeders. The other side says that it is only through the use of conversions that real breaks and advances are made in the tetraploid gene pool.

For my part, I don’t strictly agree with either side of this argument, or rather, I agree with each side somewhat. Perhaps my biggest disagreement with these sides is that I see no need for either side. I see no use for such black-and-white dualisms that in the end only limit everyone. 

For the record, I find conversions useful, but I also recognize that the vast majority of conversions are made strictly because of the flower, and some of those conversions are not great plants. That is fine, but then an over-focus on such converted material can bring hosts of plant problems into the tetraploid gene pool (and this has happened before and will undoubtedly happen again). 

Conversely, there are remarkable programs that have been developed through patient work within a lineage and have never incorporated much converted material. Both methods work and have merit. However, I would suggest that both methods, when used together - line breeding and the judicious use of converted materials - can have a broader, more balanced impact on a given program.
To begin with, line breeding is best done to establish a strong base, to bring together many desirable traits (including, perhaps especially, plant traits) to create a strong, reliable base to bring advanced materials (including converted materials) over. The establishment and use of a reliable base with known breeding value is almost essential to using conversion materials, especially where the conversion was made because of the flower and there may be lesser-quality plant traits to eliminate in those converted lines through judicious outcrossing and selection.

In this way, there is no need for there to be two camps in opposition, but rather, there can be one large community, with each individual playing their own role, in pursuit of improving the flower we all love, for the entire community. There is no one right method to breeding. There are many methods and there is a time, place, use and need for each of them.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

...With Gratitude and Thanks

...With Gratitude and Thanks

Looking Forward to 2017

This is a blog post I have long been planning to make, but life happens, one thing comes along and then another, and I often get distracted from writing all the things that come to mind. However, a recent conversation with a friend has prompted me to go ahead and make this post.

While speaking with a friend about daylilies, I was asked about my honest thoughts of the daylily community. My immediate answer was that I love the daylily and the daylily community. It was one of those immediate answers that requires no thought at all. We continued on with our conversation, discussing many aspects of our breeding programs, but the question I listed above left me thinking about this article that I have wanted to write to the entire daylily community.

The most important thing I want to convey is that I accept, approve of and full endorse whatever aspect of daylilies that any give person wants to focus on. Be that a home gardener with a few daylilies, serious collecting, growing for resale or breeding, I think we need you all. To speak directly to everyone interested in daylilies, but especially to breeders, to all breeders, I can only encourage you to proceed with whatever you are currently doing, whatever fills you with joy.

I joke often that there are currently more daylily breeders than there are registered daylily cultivars (which isn’t quite true, but is possibly close), so there is room for many, many directions to be looked into and pursued. The daylily world is large, vast and deeply diverse, both in terms of the many, many breeders and the many, many registered cultivars and species clones that are available to any person who wishes to breed daylilies. For every person who wishes to breed daylilies, for whatever reason or goal, there are likely to be daylilies from which that direction can be pursued.

I want to stress that in reading my blog posts, it is important to remember that their first purpose is to serve me as a public diary, where I am giving you glimpses into my process. It is important to understand that. My blogs are not written to serve as guidelines for your program, or as a criticism of any other programs, but rather to serve as guideposts for myself, my interests and criteria, guideposts in where I have come from and where I hope to go. If you find something in my writing that interests you, some method I use that you would like to experiment with or implement in your own program, I can only encourage you to do so, but if you already have an established program, I do not in any way mean to suggest you should drop any aspect of your program to adopt aspects of mine.

One service I hope to provide in exposing my own program development is to offer sound advice in established breeding techniques for those who are either just beginning a breeding program or who are looking for new techniques to enhance their current program. I draw heavily from my own experiences in a lifetime of breeding animals and plants, as well as from established scientific plant and animal breeding techniques and methods. I would never seek to ask anyone who is happy with their current program, their aims and focus, to change to match my ideas. Please always be aware of that.

So why do I not want you to adopt my practices, if I think they are sound and usable? Because I support your right to pursue your own dreams and to encourage diversity. With the many people who are breeding daylilies, there is simply room for every type of program. Some will focus on one thing while others focus on other areas, and some will focus on more than one single focus-point. Through that diverse focus, the many programs and directions, the overall gene pool of the domestic Hemerocallis is enhanced.

Now I will be the first to admit that I see some potential problems in the daylily world. One is the ‘follow the leader’ phenomena where one person uses a cultivar and is successful with it and then large numbers of breeders seem to jump on that bandwagon. Far too often, the latest-and-greatest-and-most-popular may have problems in spite of a near-mystically-treated break in the flower phenotype, and these problems can become very magnified in the domestic Hemerocallis gene pool when a single plant or family line is given heavy focus in many, many programs. This is similar to the ‘single sire’ phenomena known in many domestic animal breeding communities. This creates a narrowing of the gene pool and a reduction of the subsequent beneficial traits that other lines may offer.

Another problem is that far too many seem to only want to focus on the flower to the exclusion of the plant. Along with this, the use of intensive cultivation methods, intensive spraying of chemicals for any and all problems and use of extremely artificial environments all contribute to masking problems and to potentially concentrating those problems into the overall gene pool. While this can be a problem, it doesn’t have to be a major problem, nor does it have to become a weight around the neck of daylily breeders.

How do we avoid the pitfalls of these problems? By encouraging a diversity of programs that all work together to create a large and balanced gene pool within the domestic Hemerocallis population. So, for instance, I do not consider my program, with all its efforts to test plants for genetic strengths, to be a replacement for other programs, but as a complement to those programs. If I seek to encourage anyone to use any of my techniques, it is simply by providing information that can be used to create programs that are complementary to the ‘Only the Flower Matters’ (OTFM) programs.

I want to be crystal clear here, though. I do not disdain or disparage any ‘Flower Only’ programs. They are essential! They push the envelope in terms of flower phenotypes and where would we be without them? What I encourage is not an end to such programs. In fact, I can only express my deepest thanks and gratitude for all the breeders who are pushing that edge, constantly pushing the flower traits forward. I ONLY want them to continue. I use some of the flowers these programs produce. I will continue to watch for real breaks within these programs, and they will continue to occur, much to the delight of all.

However, as these flower breaks occur within programs where less emphasis is placed on such traits as the plant, survivability without intensive care, extreme hardiness or disease resistance, it will be incumbent on all the breeders who can work in a less singularly-focused program to apply their skills to taking these amazing flower-break genetics into hardener and more diverse lineages to stabilize them and assure both the continued existence and advances of these genes and to ensure they reach the regular gardening public in a form they can properly manage and enjoy, enhancing the reputation of the daylily and increasing its popularity with the general public. 

In this way we increase the diversity of the daylily and increase its appeal. This is a group effort. None of us live in a vacuum and we each are impacted by and strengthened by each and every person who picks up some pollen and moves it around their daylily garden. As always, I only want to stress that the entire daylily community, all the many diverse directions and persons, are a part of the whole cloth of the daylily world and the continuation of the ever-expanding Hemerocallis gene pool.

In closing, I just want to thank you all simply for being yourselves, and doing what you do. Continue to do it! In the last six years of discovering what I want to work with, I have encountered many wonderful people and have enjoyed those interactions. I hope to get to know many of your better from this point forward, as I plan to be more available to the general daylily public. Throughout this preliminary stage of determining where my focus would go, I have been less social, purposefully, in order to not be too influenced by the directions of other breeders, so I could stay focused on the program I wanted to develop and what plants worked best for me to start that program. Now that I am at that point, I am excited to be in more contact with all the great daylily folks out there in the big, wide daylily world.

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

The Daylily as Art - Part 7 The Plant

The Daylily as Art

Hemerocallis fulva 'Korean' (left) and Autumn Red (right)

Influences on Plant and Flower Aesthetics from Nature, the Arts, Fashion and Pop Culture
Part 7 - The Plant

We now turn from the aesthetics of the flower and to the aesthetics of the plant itself. In this post we will look at the plant - its foliage, the shape the foliage makes in a clump, its foliage behavior and durability, its scapes, branches and buds, and finally its flowers in terms of size and carriage on the plant. My aesthetic in regard to the plant is influenced most strongly by nature.

The Plant
Daylily plant (center) Solaris Symmetry after hard late-spring freeze showing excellent frost resistance

Too many times, we think only of the flowers. They are, after all, the most stunning, eye-catching and memorable part of the daylily, but the flowers only span a short period of time during each year. The plant though, it is with us for much longer. We look at the plants from the time they emerge in the spring until they go down in the late fall, for the senescent foliage types that go into some kind of dormancy in the winter, while the perpetual growing types that are considered evergreen or 'semi-evergreen' are with most of us year-round, except where deep winter snow covers them and freezes them off to the ground. However, even at that, we far too often don't think much about the plant itself beyond whether it is 'a dormant' or 'an evergreen'.

But what if the daylily plant didn't flower? Are any of them pretty enough plants that you would grow them only for their foliage? Mike Huben told me that when training new daylily judges he tells them to imagine they were growing the daylily for its foliage only and that they would even want to cut off the bloom scape in that situation to preserve the beauty of the foliage. I think that is a great training tool in judging the plant, because in that situation, I suspect most of use would throw out most of our daylilies. We far too often let too much unattractiveness with the plant and its foliage slide because we've been hypnotized by the flowers or think that "only the flower matters" (OTFM).

I have always grown daylilies as foliage plants and considered their foliage when placing them in decorative gardens. Some of them have remarkably pretty foliage and I have long used them as a substitute for ornamental grasses in the landscape, with the added benefit that they will also flower for a time each summer. By having used daylilies in this way for many years, I have long looked closely at foliage and thought about what I did or didn't like in daylily foliage. I have observed that various daylily foliage looks more like some types of grasses than others and that there is considerable variation in the visual presentation of the foliage of various daylilies. 

Ideally, my very favorite style of daylily foliage is dark green and forms a thick mound of foliage that makes a full, rounded effect with gracefully curved foliage without wide gaps within the clump and with no foliage falling out of the main rounded form. To me, this looks like some of the fuller and more attractive ornamental grass and grass-like plants such as Liriope or Miscanthus. Ideally, such daylily plants will have foliage that holds up to late freezes in spring, has strong disease and pest resistance and holds up in good shape and form throughout the growing season and late into the fall, either going into full dormancy or, if evergreen, not turning into a mound of mush and slime. However, we don't live in a perfect world and in our imperfect reality, there are variations I can live with and some variations I actually like, or at least have learned to like or at the very least, have learned how to use in the landscape and to appreciate when they are combined with the right flower type.

There are many variations in daylily foliage. There are variations in the shade of green of the leaves with plants ranging from near-yellow chartreuse to grass green to dark forest green, while others can show a distinct bluish hue. There are variations in the width and texture of the leaves. Some have very narrow leaves, some very wide. Some plants show ruffles on the edges of the leaves while others are very smooth and tailored. Some plants have tall foliage that stands up and arcs over making a graceful vase effect, while some show leaves that stand straight up like yucca foliage without arching over, while others cascade over making a beautiful waterfall effect especially where the leaves have some ruffling. Some plants show low foliage near the ground. Some plants are very small with narrow fans while others become massive with fans that are very wide. Some make very full clumps without gaps, while others are loose and fall askew showing the ground in areas when looked down upon. 

As Hemerocallis and Hosta are closely related, I suspect that many of the phenotypes seen in non-variegated Hosta are achievable in Hemerocallis - black-green leaves, blue leaves, gold leaves, yellow leaves, glossy leaves, matt-powdered leaves, wide leaves, textured leaves, heavily ruffled leaves, etc. We don't see these variations being exploited, but that doesn't mean they couldn't be.

While I have already described above the one main type I look for the most, there are other types I also like. For instance, Hemerocallis fulva 'Korean' has very chartreuse-near golden foliage in the early part of the growing season and this is quite attractive to me. Substantial Evidence also shows this coloring in the new foliage and Frans Hals shows a light foliage color that is a couple of shades darker, somewhere between chartreuse and grass-green, perhaps 'apple-green', and the clump is well shaped and attractive showing a look much like yucca foliage with slight bends or arches to the ends of some of the leaves. Hemerocallis vespertina has tall foliage that cascades over making a large clump and shows distinct ruffles to the leaves with a nice dark green coloring, which I find to be a nice combination and quite attractive. 

Substantial Evidence (center clump) showing nice clump form

Frans Hals in spring after a hard late-spring freeze showing its resilience to frost

A seedling I produced from Implausibility x Bali Watercolor is a massive plant with mostly upright foliage of a grass-green tone that produces massive fans and makes a tight clump that is the largest daylily plant I have ever grown. 

Seedling - Implausibility x Bali Watercolor - scapes over five feet, often up to six feet with a plant at or slightly over three feet. It is massive, the largest plant I have every grown and is extremely impressive.

Some spider types show foliage much like their flowers, weird and twisted and askew, falling open from the center without distinct form, and while I don't like that foliage generally with a really weird, cascading flower on a weird askew scape, this foliage makes a complete theme that seems appropriate and 'of a piece'. 

Aldersgate showing the weird, askew foliage and scape that quite matches the strange, cascading spider flower

There are many ornamental grasses, and many of them look remarkably like some of the types of daylily foliage, but as much as I draw my natural, aesthetic influences in daylily foliage from various species of grass, I also draw influence from some of the daylily species. I have already mentioned Hemerocallis fulva 'Korean' and Hemerocallis vespertina. Both have attractive foliage, as do many of the clones of Hemerocallis citrina. Hemerocallis altissima shows the yucca-like foliage that we see in some hybrid cultivars, though I like this foliage less than the more cascade/waterfall types.

Back left - H. citrina clone | Center right - H. vespertina | Front center - Flourish of Trumpets showing foliage similar to H. vespertina but slightly lighter in color.

The grasses that influence my aesthetic in daylily foliage include many diverse types including silver spikegrass, lemongrass, India grass, Gamma grass, Fakahatchee grass, several of the Carex species, Mexican Feather grass, various Miscanthus (Maiden grass) and other grass-like plants such as Liriope, Yucca and some Iris foliage, especially I. sibirica.


Liriope muscari

India Grass

Carex morrowii

There is much diversity in the foliage of the daylily, and much potential for further development and utility within that diversity, but as long as OTFM, the foliage is likely to remain just an after-thought, an also-ran in comparison to the all-important flower. For my part, I can't ignore the foliage. The plant is the base that displays and frames the flower. A gorgeous flower on a hideous plant reminds me of an original Picasso displayed in a frame from a big box store.

Many people do pay attention to the behavior of foliage in the winter, with "dormant" foliage types being highly valued in northern gardens and "evergreen" types being greatly valued in the south. The "dormant" types are often held in suspicion by those in the south, while northerners tend to hold  "evergreen" types in suspicion. There is some basis for all these beliefs, but they are not absolutes, as they are so often portrayed. It is true that many "dormant" types show superior performance in the north and fail in the south, while many "evergreen" types show superior performance in the south and fail in the north, but these experience are not to be mistaken for laws or facts. Some "evergreen" types excel in the north, while some "dormant" types grow well even in the far south.

My own garden falls in zone 6/7 and so many things will do well here. However, many tender evergreen types either have little late-frost tolerance or cannot survive in my often snow-free winters with many temperature extremes in any given winter, however, those evergreen types that are hardy and show frost tolerance do well. The dormant types tend to all do well here, though they are not all frost tolerant. Having grown many evergreen types for years here, I have weeded out those that don't work in my garden's climate and have found those that do. In my current breeding, I am not attempting to focus on one foliage type over another. 

In the past, I did try to focus on a "dormant-only" program, but I have found that other points are more important to me and that if I work from those evergreen types that are hardy here and frost-tolerant and integrate them with dormant types, I am able to create both dormant types and hardy, frost tolerant evergreen types. I hope to produce plants with beautiful foliage that show hardiness and late-frost tolerance regardless of their foliage type. I don't mean to imply that I expect for every introduction to be hardy in every zone of the North American continent, but I do hope to produce individual plants that are suitable for a wide range of zones - some lines more focused on warm-winter zones and some lines more focused on cold-winter zones with some overlap between those lines. For this reason, I am using both foliage types, with some lines more focused one way and other more focused the other, with many of them a blending of both and producing descendants that can show either foliage type. I do want to produce plants that can flourish in a wide range of environments, but I know that not every plant can do that.

Scapes, Branches and Buds
A well-branched and nicely budded seedling (Great White x Custard Candy)

The scape, especially in terms of branches and bud count, are probably the main thing people think of when they think of "plant traits". And why shouldn't they be? They are directly related to the flower. They really don't have anything to do with the qualities of the plant itself, and they are an unattractive nuisance to be removed when the flowering is finished (and the pods are gathered if you are breeding), but they add or detract from the overall presentation of the flower, and play a big role in determining how many of those flowers we get.

Large numbers of branches and buds are popular fetishes and other than "dormant" foliage are the only plant traits that I am aware of that are fetishized at a level near that of the flowers. I will freely admit that I am just as drawn to multi-branching and high bud count as anyone. I am fully obsessed with tall scapes that are so branched they look like trees and with many, many buds. My aesthetic for the scape and its branches is drawn from nature, from certain daylily species (especially H. vespertina) as well as from the general shapes of many bushes and trees, and further, in the Fibonacci sequence and Mandelbrot patterns as seen in the branching of trees specifically, and in many, many other natural patterns, generally. However, I also recognize that not all daylilies need this level of branching.

Fibonacci sequence in tree branches - in daylilies, we often hear branches similar to this pattern called 'candelabra branching' 

Mandelbrot pattern sequence

Certain daylilies may have few or even no branches and still present a very pleasing display. For instance, daylilies that rebloom with great regularity may have little need for heavy branching or high bud counts, and the same may be the case for daylilies that produce particularly high scape-to-fan ratios. Another instance where fewer branches can work well is when the flowers are held just above the foliage. To me, where many branches are most necessary is on daylilies with tall scapes where the flowers are held well above the foliage.

Spider Man is an excellent cultivar that has low branch count and moderate bud count, but high scape-to-fan ratio with scapes held just above the foliage creating a profusion of flowers, a nicely balanced appearance and an excellent garden display.

Spider Man in full flower can produce a bouquet effect without the necessity of high branch count. In my garden, this cultivar gives a full month of bouquet-like display and is one of the best cultivars for the early to early-mid season.

Tall cultivars, such as Pack Hunter, with scapes well above the foliage, make a better display when they show multi-branching, to my eye. The multiple branches allow these tall cultivars to also present a bouquet-like effect.

Bud count is much the same as for branching, in that those cultivars that show reliable rebloom or high scape-to-fan ratio do not need as many buds as those cultivars without reblooming traits or with lower scape-to-fan ratio. The goal, for me, is to produce an over-all pleasing effect in the garden, so a long period of flowers and a good number of flowers open each day are both desirable traits to have. How you get there exactly though can be by different paths and may depend on other traits, such as the height of the scapes, scape density or the presence or absence of rebloom as well as the consistency of this trait.

I will say that, as with branching, I like a lot of buds - as many as possible. However, I don't like high branch number if those branches are close and poorly spaced causing the open flowers to be jammed together and on top of each other. Well-spaced branching is a must. As well for buds, many buds are nice, but if the sequence of opening is not well-spaced, we can see an unattractive "traffic jam" with flowers obscuring each other. So all things must occur in a proper fashion to actually be useful. 

Another consideration is that branching and bud count, while heritable, is also heavily influenced by the environment and condition of the plant. Many well-branched or highly budded cultivars must be mature clumps (two or more years of growth in place) to produce the proper number of branches and/or buds. Some cultivars will not produce the numbers of branches or buds seen in their home garden of origin or in greenhouses, when grown in other gardens in different climatic zone or environments (or just in the outdoor garden instead of a greenhouse). Even in the same garden with the exact same care from year to year scape height, branching and bud count can vary depending on environmental conditions in any given year. 

The final point I want to touch on in regard to the scape is height. For me, I like all scape heights. I find uses for all types, from short border types to very tall types up to six feet or more, and I like every height in between. However, my favorite range is between 36" up to about 60", with 48" seeming perfect to me - with one big caveat - I don't like scapes of any height that fall over. As I have said previously, the shorter types work well with fewer branches, especially when they have a high scape-to-fan ratio or rebloom and the taller forms seem better to my eye with more branches, even if they do rebloom and/or have a high scape-to-fan ratio. The key with the taller types for me is that the branches don't fall over, are well-spaced and the flowers are presented well on the branches so as not to be jammed together and cause their individual beauty to be obscured.

Flower Size and Carriage

Daylilies display a wide range of flower sizes from tiny, mini flowers only a couple of inches in size up to giant flowers of twelve inches or more. Most cultivars show flowers that are more in the middle of that range usually between four to six inches. The species flowers tend to be a bit smaller, most in the two to four inch range. A major focus of hybridizing since the beginning has been toward increasing flower size, which has obviously been quite successful as there are many cultivars that display flowers larger than any of the species.

I like all sizes of daylily flowers. Each size has its own niche in the garden, its own unique character and its own beauty. Small flowers are like little butterflies, while the giant flowers are like some mythical flower from a fairy tale. The small and mid-sized flowers are the backbone of the garden, while the giant flowers provide a lovely accent point.

However, in practical terms, they are not all created equally. As with any extreme, the large flowers, while amazing, breathtaking and gorgeous, create certain problems in management that the smaller flowers do not tend to have. The most obvious is that the large flowers, when they wilt, tend to make a big, sloppy, wet, sticky mess that has to be removed every day in order to keep the display looking neat and to keep those wilted monsters from sealing the new flowers shut. In my experience, I like to have a few giant flowers about as accents and for interest, but they are not something I focus on. I am glad that others are focusing on them and would never suggest that they shouldn't but they aren't my focus in spite of my having a few and breeding from some of them.


You see, I just don't like to spend a lot of time deadheading wilted flowers, and I suspect that many other people, especially busy people who just want to grow some nice flowers in their yard, will feel the same way. Not all smaller flowers will wilt and self-clean or become inconspicuous, but they won't create the mess that the giants usually make.

For me, my very favorite flower size are medium to small, usually in the 2" to 4" or 5" range. I like flowers up to 6" and as I said, I have some much larger, but I prefer that the bulk be medium to small and self-cleaning enough to not require extensive deadheading. True self-cleaning individuals are very special, to me. I also find that the small to medium flowers have the best effect in the landscape, especially for mass-plantings and as colorful background fill, while the large flowers work best as an individual planting or as an accent point.

Ancient Elf

My main influence for these smaller to medium flowers is from the species daylilies themselves. The smaller flowers also remind me of small-flowered orchids or a kaleidoscope of butterflies. I prefer smaller flowers on both tall scapes with lots of buds and branches (tall and small) as well as on short scapes with rebloom. I prefer medium sized flowers on medium to tall scapes, and large flowers on medium to tall scapes. I don't care for large flowers on small scapes, though, generally.

Hemerocallis citrina

Flower placement is an often overlooked point, but it can be very important. Above I discussed flower placement in terms of branches being well-spaced and not crowding the open flowers together. That is an important point, but ideal flower placement can also involve the angle of the flower. For instance, do the flowers face outward on the scape or do they face upward. There are situations where each is useful. For short cultivars, upward faced flowers can be very attractive, but they may not be on tall-scaped plants. On tall plants, outward facing flowers are most desirable. However, with some of the newer sculpted types such as pleating, upward facing flowers can be very attractive and create an iris-like effect. On short cultivars, outward facing blooms can be less attractive than more upward faced flowers. It all depends on the flower, the scape height and the effect you are looking to achieve based in where and how you will be growing them. I like both types and find uses for both.

An upward facing flower on Love Comforts the Soul

Next - The final installment of this series...

Monday, October 10, 2016

Seed Accessions 2010 & 2011

Seed Accessions 
2010 and 2011

I had been growing daylilies since the early 1970's, almost 40 years, when I decided to start seriously breeding them seriously in 2010. I had dabbled at breeding daylilies before, mainly with crosses involving Stella De Oro, but my work with poultry had consumed my time and kept me from ever getting actively involved (read that - 'obsessed') with daylily breeding. 

This list is of all the seeds I purchase in the fall of 2010 through the spring of 2011, as well as seeds I was gifted by Mike Huben. This was the beginning of my breeding program, though much material in the form of plants (introductions and seedlings) has been added from 2010 to present and I had quite a few plants, some of which have made it into my breeding program, that date from before 2010, some going all the way back to my childhood (Frans Hals, Stella De Oro, etc.).

I want to document this original seed accession as I will be introducing plants deriving from this group of seeds, as well as things from my own crosses, and I think it will be interesting to have the original accession to compare to the actual introductions, just to give some idea of the accession-to-introduction ratio, as well as to discuss why the introductions were chosen, why other things were bred from but not introduced and finally, why things were culled that neither made it into my breeding program or to introduction.

Almost all of these seeds were of diploids. Even though I somewhat prefer tetraploids and am constantly moving my breeding focus in that direction, I chose to focus on diploids in 2010 for numerous reasons. First, I wanted to take some time to get a feel for the heritability of various phenotypes and that is easier to gauge (for me at least) at the diploid level. Second, I wanted to experiment with a wide range of different phenotypes and family lines within the daylily gene pool to get a feel for what types matched my interests most closely. Third, diploid seeds were more available and much less expensive. I felt that when it came to tetraploid breeding, I would much rather buy the plants, grow and test them in my own garden and then generate my own seeds and proceed, patiently, from there, rather than invest large sums of money into seeds from cultivars I knew nothing about other than a (perhaps questionably photoshopped) picture. Fourth, there were a handful of diploid cultivars/phenotypes that seemed to be much more highly developed in the diploids than in the tetraploids at that time (Mahieu cultivars, Norris cultivars, Carpenter cultivars, etc.) and so to work with those, I needed to go with diploids, and anything that turned out good from the other diploid seeds could be used with any good plants from these types.

I did make a couple of purchases of tetraploid seeds that I got inexpensively, including one large bulk lot, which gave me a tiny window into a good number of fancy southern tetraploids, but I have kept very few individuals from that group. I will mark the tetraploid accessions by highlighting them in blue in the list below. You will note though they they are by far the minority of the overall accession.

There are 223 different crosses represented in the list below for a total of approximately 3455 seeds. I had good germination on most accessions and germinated an estimated 2,953 seedlings. 

The years spanning from 2010 to 2016 have been a testing and research-and-development phase during which time I have sought to find individual plants and/or family lines that express, and have breeding value for, the traits I desire to work with, both in terms of phenotype and performance. I find my self now, as 2016 comes to an end, being in the position where I know what main lines I will move forward with. I consider this then to be the beginning of my actual breeding program. I now have my breeding base and will begin to move forward.

That forward movement will be almost entirely with tetraploids, though I will continue onward with a few of the most interesting diploid lines I have been working with. Because I am to be breeding fewer diploid lines, the bulk of my introductions at the beginning will be the best of the diploid seedlings I have raised over these last years, as I now begin to work with the tetraploid base I have bred up. In this way, it is my aim to get excellent plants with good breeding value into commerce and into the hands of diploid aficionados and breeders who can make good use of them in their own breeding programs.

To that end, it seemed a good place to start would be this accession list from the very beginning of my program. As I make introductions I will be discussing the lines I have chosen to work with and why, both to document where I began and to illustrate a program of testing and selection leading to the beginning of breeding lines and introductions.

Seed Accessions – Fall/Winter 2010 through Winter/Spring 2011

*Entries marked in blue are tetraploid seed accessions
*Entries marked in green were gifted seeds from Mike Huben from his 2010 breeding season

1.    Apophis x Black Armadillo – D – 178 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
2.    (Apophis x Volcan Fuego) X Brushed By Bluebirds (Se) – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
3.    (Apophis x Brushed By Bluebirds) X Hooded Cobra – D – 10 seeds {(Dorm x Sev) X Dorm)}
4.    Apophis X (H. sempervirens x Volcan Fuego) – D – 25 seeds {(Dorm X (Evg x Dorm)}
5.    Lavender Baby Blue x Apophis – D – 47 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
6.    Snowflake Empress x Apophis – D – 20 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
7.    (Great White x Mask of Eternity) X Event Horizon – T x D (ug) – 12 seeds (None Fertile)
8.    Bluegrass Music x Doyle Pierce – T – 10 seeds (Sev x Sev)
9.    H. hakuunensis x Tigereye Spider – D – 21 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
10. Reuther’s Brown Spider x Big Ross – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
11. Reuther’s Brown Spider x Orchid Corsage – D – 8 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
12. Old Termite x Smoke Scream – D – 8 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
13. Memories of Oz x Kermit’s Scream – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
14. Mardi Gras Beads x unk – T – 8 seeds (Dorm x_)
15. Clarity of Vision x Unk – T – 7 seeds (Dorm x_)
16. Clouds of White x unk – D – 6 seeds (Dorm x_)
17. Infinite Blue x unk – T – 3 seeds (Sev x_)
18. Sweeping Shadows x unk – 11 seeds (Sev x_)
19. Rock Solid x unk – T – 8 seeds (Dorm x_)
20. Hint of Blue x Kermit’s Scream – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
21. Pizza Crust x Memorial To Steve – T – 8 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
22. Memorial To Steve x Free Tibet – T – 8 seeds (Sev x Sev)
23. Malachite Prism x Volcan Fuego – D – 23 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
24. Baitoushan x Snake In The Grass Boo – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
25. Tis Midnight x Chaco Canyon – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
26. American Revolution x Scandinavia – D – 23 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
27. Challenger x Lucky Streak – D – 30 seeds (Evg x Sev)
28. Tigereye Spider x Chasing Butterflies – D- 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
29. Bagana x Beware The Wizard – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
30. Memories of Oz x Kermit’s Scream – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
31. Pendergriff Lavender Gingham x Kermit’s Scream – D – 11 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
32. Old Termite x Emerald Starburst – D – 5 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
33. Stella Eyed sdlg x Navajo Princess – D – 25 seeds (_x Sev)
34. Kermit’s Scream x Smoke Scream – D – 8 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
35. Reuther’s Brown Spider x unk – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x_)
36. Winter Vision x Quiet Wyatt – T – 8 seeds (Sev x Sev)
37. Jersey Spider x Tigereye Spider – D – 13 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
38. Reuther’s Brown Spider x Fleishel’s Black sdlg – D – 6 seeds (Dorm x_)
39. Stoplight x North Wind Dancer – D – 7 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
40. Voodoo Magic x tetra Lavender Baby Blue – T – 5 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
41. Stargate Portal x (Baby Blue Eyes x Substantial Evidence) – D – 12 seeds {(Dorm X (Sev x Dorm)}
42. Trahlyta x Fancy Face – D – 26 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
43. Lavender Baby Blue x Fancy Face – D – 15 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
44. Priscilla’s Rainbow x (Baby Blue Eye x Substantial Evidence) – D – 22 seeds {(Evg X (Sev x Dorm)}
45. Topgun’s Sunkist Delight x Clouds of White – D – 22 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
46. Clouds of White x All American Windmill – D – 27 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
47. Pastilline x Kermit’s Scream – D – 4 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
48. Beautiful Edgings x Kermit’s Scream – D – 16 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
49. Smoke Scream x Kermit’s Scream – D – 9 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
50. Cast Your Net x Facepaint – T – 11 seeds (Sev x Evg)
51. Orange Electric x Kingdom Border – T – 9 seeds (Evg x Evg)
52. Forever Redeemed x Mississippi Red Bed Beauty – T – 9 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
53. Pumpkin Prince x Rock Solid – T – 6 seeds (Evg x Dorm)
54. Levi Davis x Kingdom Border – T – 11 seeds (Evg x Evg)
55. Blueberry Lemonade x unk – T – 12 seeds (Sev x_)
56. Always Afternoon x Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – T – 21 seeds (Sev x Sev)
57. Leonard Bernstein x Larry Allen Miller – T – 18 seeds (Evg x Evg)
58. Always Afternoon x Hebrew Maiden – T – 21 seeds (Sev x Evg)
59. Tigerland x unk – T – 18 seeds (Sev x_)
60. El Desperado x Aztec Headdress – T – 17 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
61. El Desperado x Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – T – 7 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
62. Orange Electric x Dr. Jerrold Corbett – T – 6 seeds (Evg x Evg)
63. Border Music x unk – T – 9 seeds (Sev x_)
64. Aztec Headdress x Larry Allen Miller – T – 5 seeds (Sev x Evg)
65. Orange Electric x Levi Davis – T – 10 seeds (Evg x Evg)
66. Pumpkin Prince x unk – T – 11 seeds (Evg x_)
67. Passion in Paris x Rock Solid – T – 9 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
68. Wisest of Wizards x Dance Bojangles Dance – T – 6 seeds (Sev x Sev)
69. Piano Man x unk – T – 27 seeds (Evg x_)
70. Lies and Lipstick x Bohemia After Dark – T – 14 seeds (Sev x Sev)
71. Mexican Magic x Singular Sensation – T – 5 seeds (Sev x Sev)
72. Red Volunteer x Dance Bojangles Dance – T – 7 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
73. Always Afternoon x Dance Bojangles Dance – T – 10 seeds (Sev x Sev)
74. Lies and Lipstick x unk – T – 9 seeds (Sev x_)
75. Levi Davis x Junzi – T – 7 seeds (Evg x Evg)
76. Border Music x Levi Davis – T – 6 seeds (Sev x Evg)
77. Cherry Eyed Pumpkin x Painted Petroglyph – T – 16 seeds (Sev x Sev)
78. Always Afternoon x Special Candy – T – 12 seeds (Sev x Evg)
79. Topgun’s Sunkist Delight x Lily Munster – D – 15 seeds (Sev x Sev)
80. Clouds of White x Lily Munster – D – 20 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
81. Rosy Returns x Kermit’s Scream  - D – 9 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
82. Look Here Mary x Desert Icicle – D – 18 seeds (Sev x Sev)
83. Look Here Mary x Cheap Quills – D – 21 seeds (Sev x Sev)
84. Starsearch x Look Here Mary – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
85. Hot Bronze x Sears Tower – T – 15 seeds (Evg x Dorm)
86. Firestorm x Look Here Mary – D – 15 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
87. Back To School x Challenger – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
88. Strangeitude x Green Spill – D – 15 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
89. Texas Feathered Fancy x Cosmic Kaleidoscope – D – 7 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
90. Texas Feathered Fancy x Tanimbar Cockatoo – D – 4 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
91. Lavender Baby Blue x Tanimbar Cockatoo – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
92. Texas Feathered Fancy x Lavender Baby Blue – D – 15 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
93. Texas Feathered Fancy x Olaf The Conqueror – D – 7 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
94. Blueberry Breakfast x Cosmic Kaleidoscope – D – 8 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
95. Blueberry Breakfast x Texas Feathered Fancy – D – 7 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
96. Substantial Evidence x Crystal Blue Persuasion – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
97. Substantial Evidence x Kaleidoscope Intrigue – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
98. Ottis Leonard x Kermit’s Scream – D – 9 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
99. Sari x Kermit’s Scream – D – 17 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
100.      How’s The Weather Up There x Kermit’s Scream – D – 17 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
101.      Free Tibet x Pizza Crust – T – 8 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
102.      Facepaint x Oktoberfest – T – 4 seeds (Evg x Sev)
103.      Singular Sensation x In Search of Angels – T – 2 seeds (Sev x Sev)
104.      Facepaint x Sandra Hudson – T – 4 seeds (Evg x Evg)
105.      Hollywood and Vine x Oktoberfest – T – 4 seeds (_X Sev)
106.      Facepaint x Wren’s Song – T – 2 seeds (Evg x Dorm)
107.      Way Cool x JT Davis – T – 2 seeds (Evg x Evg)
108.      Roman ______ x Let Me Count The Way – T – 4 seeds (_x Sev)
109.      (John Peat x Scottish Fantasy) X unk – T – 15 seeds {(Sev x Sev) x_)
110.      Rock Solid x King of Angels – T – 4 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
111.      El Desperado x Open My Eyes – T – 3 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
112.      Forbidden Desire x Mercury of Gascone – T – 4 seeds (Sev x Evg)
113.      Riders of the Storm x Open My Eyes – T – 4 seeds (Sev x Evg)
114.      Red Volunteer x unk – T – 3 seeds (Dorm x_)
115.      Soft Summer Night x Lies and Lipstick – T – 4 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
116.      Pumpkin Prince x Forever Redeemed – T – 4 seeds (Evg x Dorm)
117.      Dr. Jerrold Corbett x unk – T – 5 seeds (Evg x_)
118.      Bold Tiger x Princess Diana – T – 2 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
119.      Songwriter x That Thing You Do – T – 4 seeds (Evg x Sev)
120.      Big Smile x Heavenly Angel Ice – D – 17 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
121.      Early Alibi x Greywoods Great Dana – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
122.      Early Alibi x Tigereye Spider – D – 11 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
123.      Stargate Portal x Fancy Face – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
124.      Tooth x Bali Watercolor – T – 17 seeds (Evg x Evg)
125.      Connect The Dots x Windmaster – T – 19 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
126.      Do The Twist x Baughston Hornswaggler – T – 7 seeds (Sev x Sev)
127.      Firestorm x Forsyth Flying Dragon – D – 7 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
128.      Look Here Mary x V. T. Right Regal – D – 21 seeds (Sev x_)
129.      All American Windmill x Lily Munster – D – 6 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
130.      Topgun’s Sunkist Delight x All American Windmill – D – 10 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
131.      Texas Feathered Fancy x Rogenvoldersson – D – 4 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
132.      Chocolate Chip x Terry Lyninger – D – 11 seeds (Dorm x Evg)
133.      Chocolate Chip x Emerald Starburst – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
134.      Kermit’s Scream x Late To The Party – D – 8 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
135.      Gudrid x Baby Blue Eyes – D – 21 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
136.      Unk x Lights Of Valinor – D – 55 seeds (_x Dorm)
137.      Lights of Valinor x Lavender Baby Blue – D – 35 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
138.      Ice Carnival x Got No Goat – D – 16 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
139.      Ice Carnival x Orchid Corsage – D – 24 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
140.      Stella De Oro x Lillian’s Crazy Arms – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
141.      Stella De Oro x Give Me Eight – D – 36 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
142.      Terry Lyninger x Fancy Face – D – 10 seeds (Evg x Evg)
143.      Early Alibi x Nina Nina Wolverina – D – 4 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
144.      Early Alibi x unk – D – 3 seeds (Dorm x_)
145.      Munson Red Seedling x Bali Watercolor – T – 14 seeds (_x Evg)
146.      Seti x Windmaster – T – 7 seed (Sev x Sev)
147.      Magic of Oz x Heavenly Pink Butterfly – D – 25 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
148.      How’s The Weather Up There x Feminine Fingers – D – 13 seeds (Sev x Sev)
149.      Pendergriff Lavender Gingham x Rose F. Kennedy – D – 26 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
150.      Feminine Fingers x Kermit’s Scream – D – 23 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
151.      Mahieu sdlg 1 x Lily Munster – D – 12 seeds (_x Sev)
152.      Radiant Moonbeam x Lily Munster – D – 13 seeds (Sev x Sev)
153.      Memories of Oz x Lily Munster – D – 11 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
154.      Dad’s Best White x Tigereye Spider – D – 13 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
155.      George Jets On x Noorland – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
156.      Sdlg Q4z/Ara x Morning Chatter - T – 20 seeds (_x_)
157.      Go With The Flow x Stargate Portal – D – 8 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
158.      Lavender Baby Blue x Heavenly Pink Butterfly – D – 25 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
159.      Old Termite x Ottis Leonard – D – 11 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
160.      Cute As Can Be x Rose F. Kennedy – D – 13 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
161.      Peacock Maiden x Jellyfish Jealousy – D – 9 seeds (Evg x Dorm)
162.      Flutterbye x Peacock Alley – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
163.      Pink Stripe x Volcan Fuego – D – 30 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
164.      Grey Witch x Lily Munster – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
165.      George Jets On x Stir Crazy – D – 11 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
166.      Early Alibi x Ghost Ranch – D – 16 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
167.      Jack Sprat x Jellyfish Jealousy – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
168.      Stella De Oro x Lillian’s Crazy Arms – D – 29 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
169.      Beautiful Edgings x Fuchsia Four – D – 14 seeds (Sev x Sev)
170.      Parfait x Fuchsia Four – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
171.      Alberene x Shuffle The Deck – D – 29 seeds (Sev x Sev)
172.      Smoke Scream x Lily Munster – D – 27 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
173.      Black Arrowhead x Shuffle The Deck – D – 36 seeds (Sev x Sev)
174.      Beautiful Edgings x Malachite Prism – D – 25 seeds (Sev x Sev)
175.      Rosabelle Von Valkenburgh x Clairvoyant Lady – D – 3 seeds (Sev x Sev)
176.      Angel Rodgers x Heavenly Pink Butterfly – D – 3 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
177.      Entrapment x Ottis Leonard – D – 9 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
178.      Early Alibi x Stir Crazy – D – 14 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
179.      Beautiful Edgings x Pink Stripe – D – 40 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
180.      Smoke Scream x Peppermint Ice – D – 15 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
181.      (Wisteria x North Wind Dancer) x unk – D – 15 seeds {(Evg x Dorm) x_)}
182.      Corrugated sdlg x Stir Crazy – D – 1 seed (_x Sev)
183.      Jocelyn’s Oddity x Lily Munster – D – 19 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
184.      (Yazoo Wild Violet x Ya Ya Girl) X Lily Munster – D – 14 seeds {(Sev x Sev) X Sev)}
185.      Jack Sprat x Liquid Memory – D – 18 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
186.      Radiant Moonbeam x Cote D’Azur – D – 16 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
187.      Flutterbye x Greywoods Great Dana – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
188.      Sanibel Shoals x Lily Munster – D – 12 seeds (Sev x Sev)
189.      Seti x Connect The Dots – T – 3 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
190.      Moonlit Caress x Twisted Sister – T – 10 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
191.      Swiss Mint x Green Spill – D – 6 seeds (none fertile)
192.      (Sdlg x Trahlyta) x unk – D – 10 seeds {(_x Dorm) X_)}
193.      Siloam Double Classic x Pink Stripe – D – 4 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
194.      Joan Senior x Lillian’s Crazy Arm – D – 12 seeds (Evg x Sev)
195.      Ice Carnival x Fuchsia Four – D – 28 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
196.      Thorhalla x Got No Goat – D – 5 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
197.      Special Invitation x Mad Jacky – D – 12 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
198.      Cast A Spell x Flutterbye – D – 19 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
199.      Yazoo Wild Violet x Tornado Alley – D – 9 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
200.      (Indian Giver x Pink Super Spider) X Peppermint Ice – D – 15 seeds {(Sev x Sev) X Sev)}
201.      Grey Witch x Stir Crazy – D – 5 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
202.      (John’s Heritage x Grey Witch) X Stir Crazy – D – 8 seeds {(Dorm x Dorm) X Sev)}
203.      Grey Witch x Peppermint Ice – D – 13 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
204.      Violet Explosion x unk – D – 2 seeds (Dorm x_)
205.      Yazoo Wild Violet x unk – D – 21 seeds (Sev x_)
206.      Ribbonette x Noorland – D – 4 seeds (_x Dorm)
207.      (Indian Giver x Pink Super Spider) X Mythperception – D – 9 seeds {(Sev x Sev) X Dorm)}
208.      (Huben) MH0315Z x MH0807V – D – 31 seeds (near white Re – complex combinations of many interesting introductions and seedlings.)
209.      Masked Bandit x Ida Mae Norris – D – 3 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
210.      Frequent Flyer x ESP – D – 65 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
211.      Substantial Evidence x Siloam Golden Gate – D – 20 seeds (Dorm x Dorm)
212.      Poinsettia x MH0874M (Registered as Way Up There) – D – 115 seeds (tall/small red)
213.      ESP X Winter Wonderland – D – 25 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
214.      Early and Often x MH0735X (Army of Darkness) – D – 68 seeds (rebloom – drk scps) (Dorm x_)
215.      (Huben) MH0868F x MH0874M (Way Up There) – D – 19 seeds (tall/small red)
216.      (Huben) MH0519L X MH0315Z (pink re)
217.      (Huben) MH0422F x MH0519L – D – 17 seeds (pink rebloom)
218.      (Huben) MH0874M (Way Up There) x MH0875B – D – 22 seeds (tall/small red)
219.      Happy Returns x Lillian’s Crazy Arms – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
220.      Nanuq x Dune Needlepoint – D – 8 seeds (Sev x Dorm)
221.      Firestorm x Give Me Eight – D – 10 seeds (Dorm x Sev)
222.      Beautiful Edgings x Got No Goat – D – 20 seeds (Sev x Sev)
223.      Corolla Light x Give Me Eight – D – 30 seeds (Dorm x Sev)

Total = 3455 (approx.)

I have accessed very few seeds after this group. In fall 2011/winter 2012, I accessed a few seeds from Linda Michaels and Nina Lapierre, and in both spring 2013 and spring 2015 Mike Huben generously shared more seeds of his program from the previous summers with me. However, my own seed production has been prodigious each year since 2011 and I have had little need to add further seed accessions, focusing rather on my own breeding program.